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Dr. Savita Gupta
  • Dental Care Center
    377 Sector A, Pocket C
    Vasant Kunj, New Delhi - 110070
    Mobile +91 9811434646


Periodontal Disease

"Perio" means around and "dontal" means tooth. Periodontal disease is an infection that gradually destroys the tissue surrounding your teeth and the jawbone that supports them. Nearly 3 out of 4 people will be afflicted with with some form of gum disease at sometime in their life. This, if left untreated, often progress to Periodontitis and eventual tooth loss.

Know Your Mouth:

Our mouth is full of bacteria. In fact , our teeth are constantly being coated with a white layer(film) of debris and bacteria. This layer is called plaque. In a healthy mouth there is a natural balance of different bacteria. You can never completely get rid of all the bacteria in your mouth, but brushing and flossing help reduce the bacteria by removing plaque. If plaque is not removed over time, it will harden to form calculus( tartar). This calculus must then be removed by a Dentist.

How does Periodontal/ Gum disease develop?

Common causes of Gum Disease:

  • Poor oral hygiene: – The root cause of gum disease is plaque
  • Diet: – Nutritional deficiencies (e.g.vit.C deficiency), excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Habits: – smoking, pan chewing, tobacco chewing, excessive use of toothpicks.
  • Dental Cause: – Large unattentended cavities, irregular teeth, ill fitting dentures, ongoing braces treatment.
  • Medical Causes: – Diabetes, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, steroids, etc.


  • Stage1: Gingivitis

    poor brushing and flossing habits allow dental plaque to build up on teeth. Plaque contains germs which cause gum disease. Early signs of gingivitis may include some swelling, bleeding, tenderness or bad breath. At this point, gums may be loose, but are still attached high on the teeth. This inflammation of the gums is called gingivitis and is the first stage of gum disease.

  • Stage2:Periodontitis

    When gingivitis is left untreated, plaque is allowed to accumulate and it begins to calcify ( harden) and forms calculus slowly begins to break down the gum and bone support of the teeth, leading to pocket formation and bone destruction. As the disease progresses, more bone get destroyed, the teeth loosen and eventually fall out or extracted. Periodontitis is a silent disease, where the bacterial infection of the gums and the supporting tissues usually occurs with pain.

    Signs of Periodontitis include :

    1. Bad breath
    2. Red or swollen gums
    3. Loose teeth
    4. Sensitive teeth
    5. Pus coming from around the teeth
    6. Pain on chewing
    7. Tender gums
    8. Bleeding gums
    9. Sudden appearance of spaces between teeth
  • Stage3: Advanced Periodontitis
    You may experience receding gums with exposed roots, darker calculus, pus if you press on your gums, and some symptoms from stage 1 and 2.


Treatment of periodontal disease depends on how much damage the disease has caused. Since periodontitis affects more than just the gums, it cannot be controlled with regular brushing and flossing. Treatment of periodontal disease is often extensive. The primary goals of all professional treatment are to promote reattachment of healthy gums to teeth, to reduce swelling, the depth of pockets, and the risk of infection, and stop further damage. Treatment options may be non surgical or surgical.


  • Scaling: This is a type of cleaning . It removes plaque and tartar from the teeth and below the gum line.
  • Root Planning: The Dentist smoothens the root surface so that supportive tissues can reattach to the tooth surface. Local    anesthesia may be used, as this procedure goes deeper than regular cleaning. Your Dentist may remove a small amount of infected gum tissue with a procedure called soft tissue curettage.

Antibiotics and Anti inflammatories.

Bite Correction.
Splinting[using adjacent strong teeth to support the weak or mobile teeth].

Consult your Dentist for more information on specific procedures.


In later stage of the disease, depending on the severity, and of the following procedures may be indicated.

Gingivectomy : This procedure removes and overgrowth of gum tissue taking the gum level back to it's original positions.

Flap Surgery : During this procedures an incision is made, a "flap" is lifted. The gums are gently separated from the tooth. Creating an access to the infected pocket. Deep deposits of plaque are then removed. The gums is then replaced on the tooth near the original gum line.

Reshaping : The Bone Your Dentist may perform osseous (bone) surgery to shape the bone after the flap surgery. The gums are sutured below the original gum line to reduce areas that trap plaque.


Just professional treatment is not a cure for gum disease; it needs your dedication . Follow these simple tips as part of a self care programme

  1. Brush your teeth twice a day.
  2. Floss regularly to remove plaque from between teeth.
  3. Rinse your mouth thoroughly after each meal.
  4. Replace your brush every 3 to 4 months.